Thursday, September 8, 2011

Ikan-Ikan Laut Nan Unik

Lautan yang luasnya dua per tiga bumi diperkirakan adalah tempat dimana kehidupan di bumi ini berawal. Kehidupan dalam laut berevolusi 3 miliar tahun sebelum kehidupan di darat. Dan di laut lebih beraneka ragam, diantaranya mungkin sangat aneh bagi kita.

Red-lipped batfish
The red-lipped batfish (Ogcocephalus darwini) is an unusual looking fish found on the Galapagos Islands. Red-lipped batfish are closely related to rosy-lipped batfish (Ogcocephalus porrectus), which are found near Cocos Island off the coast of Costa Rica. Both fish species look and behave very similarly to one another.

Batfish are not good swimmers; they use their pectoral fins to "walk" on the ocean floor. When the batfish reaches adulthood, its dorsal fin becomes a single spine-like projection that lures prey.

Opistognathidae (opisto = "behind", gnath = "mouth"), commonly referred to as jawfishes, are classified within Order Perciformes, Suborder Percoidei. They are found throughout shallow reef areas of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Gulf of Mexico. Physically similar to blennies, jawfish are generally smaller-sized fish with an elongated body plan. Their heads, mouths, and eyes are large in size relative to the rest of their bodies. Jawfish possess a single, long dorsal fin with 9-12 spines and a caudal fin that can be either rounded or pointed. Jawfish typically reside in burrows that they construct in sandy substrate. They will stuff their mouth with sand and spit it out elsewhere, slowly creating a tunnel. Utilizing the protection of these burrows, these fish will hover feeding on plankton or other small organisms, ready to dart back in at the first sign of danger. They are territorial of the area around their burrows. Jawfish are mouthbrooders meaning that their eggs hatch in their mouths, where the new-born fry are able to be protected from predators.

Spiny Lumpsucker
Spiny Lumpsucker, is a small fish, usually less than 10cm in length. A member of the Family Cyclopteridae - the lumpfishes and snailfishes, it lives in coastal areas of the North Pacific Ocean, from Washington State to North Japan. Spiny Lumpsucker lives near the ocean floor, and it is commonly found in eelgrass beds, algae beds, and rocky areas. Like all members of this family, the spiny lumpsucker has pelvic fins modified to form a suction disc, with which it can temporarily attach to rocks or algae. This individual was found living among red algae, showing its ability to use camouflage coloration. Individuals from eelgrass are often green, those from rocky areas can be brown, and others from shell/sands are often mottled or even whitish.

Ocean sunfish, Mola mola
The ocean sunfish, Mola mola, or common mola, is the heaviest known bony fish in the world. It has an average adult weight of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). The species is native to tropical and temperate waters around the globe. It resembles a fish head with a tail, and its main body is flattened laterally. Sunfish can be as tall as they are long when their dorsal and ventral fins are extended.

Puffer Fish
Tetraodontidae is a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the Tetraodontiformes order. The family includes many familiar species which are variously called pufferfish, balloonfish, blowfish, bubblefish, globefish, swellfish, toadfish, toadies, honey toads, sugar toads, and sea squab. They are morphologically similar to the closely related porcupinefish, which have large external spines (unlike the thinner, hidden spines of Tetraodontidae, which are only visible when the fish has puffed up). The scientific name refers to the four large teeth, fused into an upper and lower plate, which are used for crushing the shells of crustaceans and mollusks, their natural prey. Puffer fish are generally believed to be the second–most poisonous vertebrate in the world, after the Golden Poison Frog. Certain internal organs, such as liver, and sometimes their skin are highly toxic to most animals when eaten, but nevertheless the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in Japan (as 河豚, pronounced as fugu), Korea (as bok), and China (as 河豚 he2 tun2) when prepared by chefs who know which part is safe to eat and in what quantity. The tetraodontidae contains at least 189 species of puffers in 19 genera. They are most diverse in the tropics and relatively uncommon in the temperate zone and completely absent from cold waters. They are typically small to medium in size, although a few species can reach lengths of greater than 100 centimetres (39 in).

The Atlantic wolffish (Anarhichas lupus), also known as the Seawolf, Atlantic catfish, ocean catfish, wolf eel (the common name for its Pacific relative), or sea cat, is a marine fish, the largest of the wolffish family Anarhichadidae. They are commonly sighted throughout Asia. The numbers of the Atlantic wolffish are rapidly depleting due to overfishing and by-catch, and is currently a Species of Concern according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Although it looks fearsome, the Atlantic wolffish is only a threat to humans when defending itself out of the water. Apart from their unique appearance wolffish are distinguished by the natural antifreeze they produce to keep their blood moving fluidly in their very cold habitat, involvement by both the male and female in brood bearing, and the large size of their eggs. They are also an important factor in controlling green crab and sea urchin populations, which can become overly disruptive to habitats if left unchecked. Wolffish population success is also an important indicator of the health of other bottom dweller populations, such as cod

Clown Anglerfish

 Giant Frogfish
Frogfish don't swim very often, most of them lack a swim bladder (except the Sargassum frogfish Histrio histrio, Allenichthys glauerti, Kuiterichthys furcipilis and Phyllophryne scortea). But it can move very quickly by sucking in large quantities of water through the mouth and forcing it out through the tiny gill openings. This results in a jet-like very fast forward propulsion a few centimeters above the ground. In the newly discovered Histiophryne psychedelica those are more like a series of short hops, pushing off from the ground with its pelvic fins

The brownsnout spookfish in the Pacific is the first known vertebrate to use mirrors to focus light into its eyes. Despite being a species known for 120 years, this was not known until a live specimen was caught between New Zealand and Samoa last year. The fish lives over 1,000 meters below the ocean's surface, so the light focused by the mirrors' perfectly curved surfaces provides a major advantage over other fish.

Frilled shark
The frilled shark (Chlamydoselachus anguineus) is one of two extant species of shark in the family Chlamydoselachidae, with a wide but patchy distribution in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This uncommon species is found over the outer continental shelf and upper continental slope, generally near the bottom though there is evidence of substantial upward movements. It has been caught as deep as 1,570 m (5,150 ft), whereas in Suruga Bay, Japan it is most common at depths of 50–200 m (160–660 ft). Exhibiting several "primitive" features, the frilled shark has often been termed a "living fossil". It reaches a length of 2 m (6.6 ft) and has a dark brown, eel-like body with the dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins placed far back. Its common name comes from the frilly or fringed appearance of the gill slits, of which there are six pairs with the first pair meeting across the throat.


A viperfish is a deepwater fish in the genus Chauliodus, with long, needle-like teeth and hinged lower jaws. They grow to lengths of 30 to 60 cm (12 - 24 inches). Viperfish stay near lower depths (250–5,000 feet) in the daytime and shallow at night. Viperfish mainly stay in tropical and temperate waters. It is one of the fiercest predators in the very deep part of the sea and is believed to attack its prey by luring the victim close to itself with a light producing organ. This organ is called a photophore and is located on the end of its dorsal spine. It flashes this natural light on and off while at the same time moving the dorsal spine around like a fishing rod and hanging completely still in the water, and also uses the voluntary natural light producing organ to communicate to its potential mates and rivals.

Deep sea hatchetfish
The deep sea hatchetfish gets its name from the distinct hatchet-like shape of its body. It is a member of the Sternoptychidae family of deep sea fishes. There are about 45 individual species of hatchetfish that vary in size from one to six inches. They are most well known for their extremely thin bodies which really do resemble the blade of a hatchet. They should not be confused with the freshwater hatchetfish commonly seen in home aquariums.

Fangtooth Fish
Fangtooths are beryciform fish of the family Anoplogastridae (sometimes spelled "Anoplogasteridae") that live in the deep sea. The name is from Greek anoplo meaning "unarmed" and gaster meaning "stomach". With a circumglobal distribution in tropical and cold-temperate waters, the family contains only two very similar species, in one genus, with no known close relatives: the common fangtooth, Anoplogaster cornuta, found worldwide; and the shorthorned fangtooth, Anoplogaster brachycera, found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.

Humpback anglerfish
The humpback anglerfish or common black devil, Melanocetus johnsonii, is a deep-sea anglerfish in the family Melanocetidae, found in tropical to temperate parts of all oceans at depths of up to 2,000 meters (6,600 feet). Its length is up to 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) for males and up to 20 centimeters (8 inches) for females.

Basking Shark
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second largest living fish, after the whale shark. It is a cosmopolitan migratory species, found in all the world's temperate oceans. It is a slow moving and generally harmless filter feeder and has anatomical adaptations to filter feeding, such as a greatly enlarged mouth and highly developed gill rakers. The shape of its snout is conical and the gill slits extend around the top and bottom of its head. The gill rakers are dark and bristle-like and are used to catch plankton as water filters through the mouth and over the gills. The basking shark is usually grayish-brown in colour and often seems to have a mottled appearance. The caudal (tail) fin has a strong lateral keel and a crescent shape. The teeth of the basking shark are very small and numerous and often number one hundred per row. The teeth themselves have a single conical cusp, are curved backwards and are the same on both the upper and lower jaws.

Cookiecutter shark
The cookiecutter shark (Isistius brasiliensis), also called the cigar shark, is a species of small dogfish shark in the family Dalatiidae. This shark occurs in warm, oceanic waters worldwide, particularly near islands, and has been recorded from as deep as 3.7 km (2.3 mi). It migrates vertically up to 3 km (1.9 mi) every day, approaching the surface at dusk and descending with the dawn. Reaching only 42–56 cm (17–22 in) in length, the cookiecutter shark has a long, cylindrical body with a short, blunt snout, large eyes, two tiny spineless dorsal fins, and a large caudal fin. It is dark brown in color, with light-emitting photophores covering its underside except for a dark "collar" around its throat and gill slits. The name "cookiecutter shark" refers to its feeding habit of gouging round plugs, like a cookie cutter, out of larger animals. Marks made by cookiecutter sharks have been found on a wide variety of marine mammals and fishes, as well as on submarines, undersea cables, and even human bodies. It also consumes whole smaller prey such as squid. Cookiecutter sharks have adaptations for hovering in the water column and likely rely on stealth and subterfuge to capture more active prey. Its dark collar seems to mimic the silhouette of a small fish, while the rest of its body blends into the downwelling light via its ventral photophores. When a would-be predator approaches the lure, the shark attaches itself using its suctorial lips and specialized pharynx and neatly excises a chunk of flesh using its bandsaw-like set of lower teeth.

Barreleyes, also known as spook fish (a name also applied to several species of chimaera), are small, unusual-looking deep-sea osmeriform fish comprising the family Opisthoproctidae. Found in tropical-to-temperate waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, the family contains thirteen species in six genera (four of which are monotypic). These fish are named for their barrel-shaped, tubular eyes which are generally directed upwards to detect the silhouettes of available prey; however, according to Robison and Reisenbichler these fish are capable of directing their eyes forward as well. The family name Opisthoproctidae is derived from the Greek words opisthe ("behind") and proktos ("anus").

The life of the lumpfish is poorly mapped. They are born in the summer from a lump of roe (eggs) that the male lumpfish has guarded for two months. Several female lumpfishes contribute to the same lump of eggs from February to May. The female lumpfishes are invited to a suitable spawning ground of males guarding it.

Each female spawn 1/7 of their body weight. When fertilized, the eggs become sticky and they attract to stones or rocky bottom. The eggs from the different females have different color, so that the lump of eggs guarded by one male may be both green, yellow and red. The small lumpfishes growing up in the kelp forest, hide and seek to attach themselves with a suction disk on kelp blades, where we can see them as small buds. When they are a year old, and slightly larger than a Golf ball, they swim out into the open sea. Here they feed on plankton in 2-4 years before they wander back to the coast to spawn. The species is found throughout the eastern Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, Baltic Sea and Barents Sea. Lumpfish may travel great distances in the ocean, and it is uncertain whether there are several distinct populations, and how large these are. In Norway, we estimate that the main population to be is fish spawning in Nordland, Troms and Finnmark, but there is fish spawning along for the rest of the coast.

 Fanfin Seadevil
Fanfins are a family, Caulophrynidae, of anglerfishes. They are found in deep, lightless waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. They are distinguished from other anglerfishes by the lack of the expanded escal bulb — the bioluminescent lure at the end of the illicium — and by the very long dorsal and anal fin rays. As in other anglerfishes, males are very much smaller than the females and, after a larval and adolescent free-living stage, spend the rest of their life parasitically attached to a female.

Megamouth Shark
The megamouth shark, Megachasma pelagios, is an extremely rare species of deepwater shark. Since its discovery in 1976, only a few megamouth sharks have been seen, with 53 specimens known to have been caught or sighted as of 2011, including three recordings on film. Like the basking shark and whale shark, it is a filter feeder, and swims with its enormous mouth wide open, filtering water for plankton and jellyfish. It is distinctive for its large head with rubbery lips. It is so unlike any other type of shark that it is classified in its own family Megachasmidae, though it has been suggested that it may belong in the family Cetorhinidae of which the basking shark is currently the sole member.

Spotted handfish
The spotted handfish, Brachionichthys hirsutus, is a rare Australian fish from the family Brachionichthyidae. It is classified as Critically Endangered (CR - A1cde) on the IUCN Red List 2002.
The spotted handfish is unusual in that it has highly adapted pectoral fins, which appear like hands (hence the name) and allow it to walk on the sea floor. It has a highly restricted territory, being found only in the estuary of Derwent River, Tasmania, and nearby areas. The handfish is a unique, Australian family of anglerfish. The anglerfish family Brachionichthyidae (handfish's) is the most speciose of the few marine fish families that are an endemic to Australia. Handfish are unusual, small (up to 120mm in length), slow moving benthic fishes that prefer to 'walk' rather than swim. The pectoral, or side fins, are leg-like with extremities resembling a human hand (hence their common name).

More to Read:
Keindahan Binatang Transparan
Mahluk Mahluk Unik II
Eight Coolest Octopus
Hiu-Hiu nan Cantik
Ikan-Ikan Cantik yang Penuh Warna

Popular Posts