Sunday, February 26, 2012

Beautiful Worms, Corals & Mushrooms of the Sea

Kedalaman laut dan samudra adalah salah satu bagian bumi yang luar biasa indah. Pada kedalaman yang bisa ditembus sinar matahari, disana penuh dengan kehidupan, penuh dengan warna, penuh pesona, yang membuat tertarik para pecinta alam. Pada kedalaman ini, dipenuhi oleh ikan ikan indah dan menakjubkan, karang yang mempesona, cacing, jamur dan hewan laut yang berwarna cemerlang membuat para pencinta alam dan fotografer selam menikmati keindahan dari bagian yang indah dan megah di dunia ini.

10. Light Bulb Tunicate/Light Bulb Sea Squirt
Light Bulb Sea Squirt (Scientific name: Clavelina Lepadiformis) is a colonial sea squirt. The transparent tunic of the worm shows the yellow or white internal organs. This gives them the glow of a light bulb and hence they got their name. They are mostly found along the Norwegian Coast. Their colonies can also be seen in the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and in the Mediterranean Sea. They sit together with a loose binding at the base. They are cylindrical and have a 4cm long elongation. They grow in late winters and reproduce in summers.

9. Christmas Tree Worms
Christmas Tree Worms (Scientific name: Spirobranchus Giganteus) are small, tube-building worms belonging to the family Serpulidae. These attractive corals come in a variety of colors ranging from yellow and orange to blue and white. They are widely distributed throughout the world’s tropical oceans. The worm’s multicolored spirals actually are highly derived respiratory structures. It lacks specialized appendages for movement or swimming and does not move outside it’s tube. They have two beautiful crowns which give them Christmas tree appearance and hence they got their name. These crowns are specialized mouth appendages of the worm. They are very sensitive to disturbances. Even a shadow causes an instant reaction. It’s tube is it’s home.

8. Bubble Coral
Bubble Corals (Scientific name: Plerogyra Sinuosa) are beautiful and extinct water filled bubbles and this property gives them their beautiful name. They need light to inflate and expand. When they expand during daytime, they look like bubbles, pearls or grapes. It has a hard skeleton which is visible when they deflate. These corals are extremely fragile and puncture with touch. Care should be taken while handling and collecting them because of their long tentacles. They are mostly found in the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

7. Open Brain Coral
Open Brain Coral (Scientific name: Trachyphyllia Geoffroyi) is an oval shaped heavy skeleton with a conical base. These are also known as Folded Brain or Crater Coral. They are large polyp stony (LPS) with usually 2 to 3 polyps. The beautiful corals are red, yellow, brown, green or blue in color. It has a shape of number 8 or an hour glass shape. Tentacles come out of the mouth at evening and serve the protection purpose. The are up to 80 mm in length with 2 to 3 mouths. It is photosynthetic and requires no feeding. The red ones need less lightning than the green ones. They are easy to be collected as they prefer attaching their body to reefs, shells and dead corals.

6. Cup Coral
Cup corals (Family name: Dendrophyllidae ) are beautiful corals produced in deep water. They are non-reef building species and live on zooplankton. They extend beautiful translucent tentacles at night. Cup corals are found in extremely cold water throughout the world. Cup corals are also known as flowers of the sea and are famous due to their brilliant colors and bouquet formation. They usually take the formation of cups and plate. This coral makes its own outer skeleton of limestone.

5. Leather Mushroom Coral
Leather mushroom coral (Scientific name: Sarcophtyton sp) belongs to the family Alcyoniidae. Other common names are Green Toadstool Coral, Umbrella Coral, Elephant Ear Leather Coral, and Toadstool Coral. Like other corals they span a wide range of colors including brown, cream and dark tan. These beautiful mushrooms having the look of a partially folded leather sheet put out flower stalk-like tentacles during nighttime and when feeding in water. They house colonies of marine animals which in exchange provide them with nutrients.

4. Finger Coral
Finger Corals (Scientific name: Porites Compressa) are beautiful corals resembling fingers also known as Commonly referred to as Thin Finger Leather Coral, Knobby Finger Leather Coral, Devil’s Hand/Finger Leather Coral, Dead Man’s Finger Coral, Bushy Soft Coral, Chili Pepper Coral, Cabbage Leather Coral, Trough Coral, Sinularia Finger Thick and Lobed Leather Coral. They are naturally found in a number of shades including brown, tan, yellow, green, pink and gray. They originally belong to Indian and Pacific Ocean. These unique corals have an average size of 1-2 inches. They take their nutrition from an algae with the name of zooxanthellae. This algae hosts within its body and depends on photosynthesis. They also take their nutrients from micro plankton. Their appearance mainly depends on the strength of the ocean currents.

3. Feather Duster Worms/Tube Dwelling Worms
Who can believe that these beautiful feathers with marvelous colors are worms known as Feather Duster Worms. Feather Duster Worm(Scientific name: Sabellestarte cf. sanctijosephi) is a social worm with the look of an old fashioned feather duster. Except for the head part, the rest of the worm lives in a tube made of mucous and sand or sediment. The worm’s head sticks out of the tube with two crowns of long feathery gills are the respiratory and feeding organs of the worms. These are tiny and quickly hide inside the tube on sensing danger. Beautiful red, orange or brown sponges surrounding the worms add to their beauty.

2. Ricordea Mushrooms
These mushrooms spread in the sea like paint colors in a painter’s palate. They are available in many charming colors including red, orange, purple and green; red being the rarest and most expensive of all. Ricordeas of different colors require different treatment and care. Green Ricordea is a species of anemone mushroom coral with raised dots that line its surface. It has vibrant green coloring. The Atlantic and Caribbean species of green ricordea are referred to as R. florida, while Pacific species of green ricordea are referred to as R. yuma. Green Ricodea is a hard mushroom with slow deterioration. The Orange Ricordea are found in relatively large number. Ricordea yuma is found in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and Ricordea florida in the Caribbean Ocean. The Red Ricordea are the exotic and prized ones with more bulgy appearance and bright colors. They are sensitive and not hard like the other species. They require care while handling. Minor tear in red ricordea mushrooms results in bacterial infection.

1. Clove Polyps
Clove Polyps (Family name: Clavulariidae) also known as Glove Polyps or The Clavularia Polyp Corals are soft polyps with eight tentacles. These magnificent polyps are available in Indian-Pacific Ocean in brown, tan, pink, white and green colors. The small ones are clove polyps whereas the large ones are referred to as the glove polyps. Whatever the size may be they have 8 leaf like tentacles. They feed on iodine, mysis shrimp, micro-plankton and trace elements. They form mats or clumps and require medium light level. They develop and grow rapidly on reefs and stones.



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